A “Wise Latina” and a Son of Immigrants: Comparing Newspaper Coverage of Sonia Sotomayor and Samuel Alito
Abstract: This research paper compares coverage of the U.S. Senate Judiciary hearings for Supreme Court Associate Justices Samuel Alito and Sonia Sotomayor in two leading United States newspapers, The New York Times and the Washington Post. The qualitative textual analysis examines news frames employed by the two papers and finds that they focused on the horse race, the nominees’ personalities, their ethnicity and gender roles. The study concludes that the newspaper coverage failed to provide much useful information to the public about how the nominees would perform on the court, instead focusing on the politics of the hearings. It also concludes that coverage focused heavily on Sotomayor’s ethnicity but paid scant attention to Alito’s. As much as Sotomayor’s “wise Latina” statement was played up in the news, Alito’s statement about his ethnicity was played down. In addition, the newspapers cast Sotomayor and Martha-Ann Alito, Samuel Alito’s wife, into stereotypical female gender roles. Alito similarly was defined in a stereotypical male gender role.
Obama or O’Bama?: Framing Barack Obama’s Irish Heritage in the Irish Echo
Abstract: America’s ethnic press has long provided information about assimilation, ties to the ethnic group’s country of origin, and participation in the American political process. In light of the extensive media attention paid to Barack Obama’s Irish roots, this paper uses frame analysis to explore how the Irish Echo, the country’s largest and most widely distributed Irish American newspaper, wrote about the connection all four presidential and vice presidential candidates in the 2008 election had with Ireland, and their attention to issues important to Irish Americans, including the peace process in Northern Ireland and immigration. The results suggest that both the Echo’s news coverage and endorsement of Obama hinged less on his Irish heritage per se than the belief that both he and Joe Biden had established points of view on Irish and Irish American issues consistent with the majority of Irish American Catholics. The Echo’s endorsement also drew a parallel between the struggle for political enfranchisement experienced by African Americans and Irish Americans. This paper provides unique and previously unavailable information on American ethnic publications, the importance placed on racial and religious heritage in American political life, and the history of ethnic and Irish American newspapers.
Broadband Costs and impact on Universal Internet Access: The Case of Ghana
Abstract: Ghana was one of the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa to be connected to the World Wide Web, yet has very low broadband penetration (0.2% of the population). Based on in-depth interviews with Internet service providers (ISPs) in Ghana, and analysis of information from secondary sources, this paper identifies cost as a major contributor to low broadband access. Factors contributing to high broadband costs in Ghana are identified (such as high bandwidth costs, high license and regulatory fees, and high cost of end user equipment). The paper also discusses how ISPs in Ghana are dealing with these cost issues (such as using innovative ways to allocate bandwidth and also meet the needs of different income groups). Recommendations are made to ensure cost reduction (such as availability of reasonably priced bandwidth, infrastructure sharing, and review of regulatory and license fees).
Iranian Propaganda in the Middle East: Al Alam “The World” as Model
Khalaf M. Tahat and Gilbert Fowler
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to determine the perceptions of Jordanian journalists toward Iranian propaganda in the Middle East as well as to measure their perceptions about the Iranian-sponsored satellite, Al Alam’s credibility and efficiency. To answer the research questions, survey instrumentation was administrated on a systematic sample of 266 journalists in Jordan. Findings revealed that Iranian propaganda has no significant influence on Jordanian journalists. Data analysis examined five potential factors: The nature of Jordanian journalists’ political constructer and their reference; Jordanian journalists’ not trusting with Iranian role in Arab issues; Al Alam “The World” TV launching from Iran with a goal of enhancing “Shiite Sectarian” ideology rather than increasing Islamic unity; the existence of other more credible and influential Arabian news channel; and stopping the transmission of Al Alam toward Arabian region since November 2009. Also, findings show that Al Alam TV would have strong credibility and made it more acceptable among public viewers but not in the journalism community in four specific situations: broadcasting in Arabic languages; attacking the U.S. interests in its programs; focusing highly in projecting and covering the Palestinian cause; and giving Arab viewers a freedom to express their opinion.
Normative Theory For The Information Society
Abstract: Libelous expression that involves simultaneously transnational media presents, to an online litigant, a well-documented difficulty to pick both personal jurisdiction and law. The litigant also must contend with the vast diversity in freedom of expression theory. That uncertainty can cause a chill in speech. This paper explicates rudimentary contours of a freedom of expression theory to help adjudicate libels committed in the information society. It examines research about the meaning of freedom of expression in the information society, and it addresses the need to make libel law reliable or predictable for online journalists without regulating the Internet.